Modern Language Studies (MLS)

Professors: Buedel, Kingery
Associate Professor: Cartal-Falk
Assistant Professors: Cagle (Chairperson), Burdette, Guss
Part-time Instructors: Meeder, Ribitsch 

The study of modern languages and literatures offers opportunities to explore broadly the varieties of human experience and thought. It contributes both to personal and to international understanding by providing competence in a modern language and a critical acquaintance with the literature and culture of foreign peoples. A major can serve as a gateway to careers in business, government, publishing, education, journalism, social agencies, translating, and writing. It prepares for graduate work in literature or linguistics and the international fields of politics, business, law, health, and area studies.

MAJOR FIELDS OF STUDY

French, German, and Spanish are offered as major fields of study. The major consists of at least 36 semester hours of courses numbered 111 and above. Students who intend to pursue graduate study in a modern language should take additional 300- and 400-level courses. Majors seeking teacher certification are advised to begin the study of a second modern language. The department encourages students to consider allied courses from related fields, a second major, or an interdisciplinary major such as International Studies.

STUDY ABROAD AND INTERNSHIPS

The department recommends that all language majors study abroad in a Lycoming College affiliate program or in a department-approved program. Students seeking language teacher certification are required to study abroad for a minimum of one semester. Lycoming offers affiliate programs in Grenoble, France (Centre Universitaire d'Etudes Françaises); Cuenca, Ecuador (Estudio Sampere); Bamberg, Germany (Otto-Friedrich-Universität); Madrid, Salamanca, and Alicante, Spain (Estudio Sampere). Other department-approved programs are also available. Students who intend to study abroad should begin planning with their major advisor by the first week of the semester prior to departure. To qualify, students must have sophomore standing or higher, an overall GPA of 2.50, a GPA of 3.00 in language courses, and recommendation from faculty in the major. Overseas internships are offered through approved programs. They typically require substantial language skills and junior or senior standing.

CAPSTONE EXPERIENCE

All modern language majors are required to pass two semesters of MLS 449 (Junior-Senior Colloquium). In addition, all majors must complete at least two of the following six options: (1) appropriate study abroad for a minimum of 8 weeks; (2) an internship; (3) department-approved volunteer work in the modern language; (4) FRN 418, GERM 418, or SPAN 418 with a grade of C or better; (5) secondary teaching certification in French, German, or Spanish; (6) a total of 12 credit hours at the 400-level in French, German, or Spanish.

If the colloquia and other two requirements have not been met by the end of the first semester of the senior year, the student must submit to the chair of the department a plan signed by the advisor showing when and how these requirements will be completed.

TEACHER CERTIFICATION

Students interested in teacher certification should refer to the Department of Education listing.

MODERN LANGUAGES AND LITERATURES (MLS)

338
FOREIGN LANGUAGE  PEDAGOGY
The theories and practice of contemporary foreign language pedagogy are explored in this course. Emphasis is placed on the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century. Students write classroom observations, create and teach mini-lessons, conduct research, and devise a unit plan. Designed for future teachers of one or more languages and normally taken in the junior year. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Taught in English. Does not count toward majors in French, German, and Spanish.

449
JUNIOR-SENIOR COLLOQUIUM
This colloquium offers French, German, and Spanish majors the opportunity to meet regularly with peers, professors, and invited guest speakers to discuss linguistic, literary, cultural, and pedagogical topics. Each student enrolled in 449 is required to deliver at least one oral presentation of approximately 20 minutes in a language other than English in their second semester. Prerequisite: junior standing. The department recommends that, when possible, students take one semester of 449 during their junior year and another semester during their senior year. Taught in English. The Colloquium will meet a minimum of 6 times during the semester for 1 hour each session. After successful completion of two semesters of the Colloquium, a student may enroll for additional semesters on a pass-fail basis and no oral presentation will be required. Non-credit course.

FRENCH (FRN)

Major

A major consists of a minimum of 36 semester hours of FRN courses numbered 111 and above or approved courses from a Study Abroad program, including at least eight semester hours from the 400 level, not including MLS 449. French majors must pass at least two semesters of MLS 449 and complete two of the additional requirements as explained under Capstone Experience. Students who wish to be certified for secondary teaching must complete the major with at least a 3.00 GPA and pass FRN 221-222, 311, 418, and MLS 338 (the latter two courses with a grade of B or better). The following courses satisfy the cultural diversity requirement: FRN 221, 222 and FRN 311. The following courses, when scheduled as a W course, count toward the writing intensive requirement: FRN 222, 412, 418, and 426.

Minor

A minor in French consists of at least 20 semester hours of courses numbered 221 and above.  Eight of the credits must be numbered 300 or above. 

Courses 111 and 112 may be counted towards the minor, but then the minor must consist of at least 24 semester hours of courses, 8 hours of which must be numbered 300 or above.

101
ELEMENTARY FRENCH I
Students acquire novice-level French proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of French and Francophone cultures encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated.

102
ELEMENTARY FRENCH II
Students continue to acquire novice-level French proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of French and Francophone cultures encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated. Prerequisite: FRN 101 or equivalent.

111
INTERMEDIATE FRENCH I
Intensive review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope and the study of French and Francophone films is incorporated in the curriculum. Prerequisite: FRN 102 or equivalent.

112
INTERMEDIATE FRENCH II
Continued review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope and the study of French and Francophone films is incorporated in the curriculum. In addition a task-based component is featured in this course. Prerequisite: FRN 111 or equivalent.

221
FRENCH CONVERSATION AND REVIEW
Refinement and improvement in the development of interpersonal, interpretive and presentational modes of communication with a view to increasing proficiency toward the advanced level. Conversations and writing focus on contemporary cultural readings, literary texts, and film. Phonetics, pronunciation and grammar review. Prerequisite: FRN 112 or equivalent.

222
FRENCH COMPOSITION AND REVIEW
Students practice different genres of composition, while learning to differentiate between writing and editing.  Readings enhance linguistic and cultural knowledge with a view to increasing proficiency toward the advanced level. Includes the study of French stylistics, semantics, syntax and grammar. Prerequisite: FRN 221.

311
FRANCOPHONE CULTURES
This course introduces students to French-speaking peoples- their values, customs and institutions, with reference to the geographic and historical forces governing present-day France, the Maghreb, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean and Quebec. Prerequisite:  FRN 222 or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

315
INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH AND FRANCOPHONE LITERATURES
Diverse readings in this course draw from both French and Francophone literatures and represent significant literary movements from the Middle Ages to the present. The course is designed to acquaint the student with literary concepts and terms, genre study and the basic skills of literary analysis. Prerequisite: FRN 222 or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

321
SPECIAL TOPICS IN FRENCH AND FRANCOPHONE LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Examination of significant cultural or literary topics concerning the French-speaking world. Possible topics include: Francophone short stories; French theatre; French-speaking women writers; French and Francophone poetry; Paris and the Avant-garde; Francophone cinema; Francophone Africa; In Search of Creoleness. Prerequisites: FRN 222 or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

412
FRENCH LITERATURE OF THE 19TH CENTURY
The dimensions of the Romantic sensibility: Musset, Hugo, Madame de Staël, Vigny, Balzac, Stendhal, Sand; realism and naturalism in the novels of Flaubert and Zola; and the poetry of Baudelaire, Desbordes-Valmore, Rimbaud, Verlaine, and Mallarmé. Prerequisite: At least one French course from the 300 level. Alternate years.

418
ADVANCED LANGUAGE PRACTICE
Intensive practice for advanced students who wish to improve further their spoken and written French. Includes work in oral comprehension, phonetics, pronunciation, composition, and textual analysis. Prerequisites: Either two French 300 level courses or one French 400 level course; or consent of instructor.

426
Special Topics in French and Francophone Literature and Culture
Readings of important works and movements in French and/or Francophone literature and culture. Reading selections may focus on a particular genre or they may be a combination of drama, poetry and prose. Cultural topics may be explored with an interdisciplinary approach. Possible topics include: Medieval literature; the Baroque period; the epistolary novel; Romanticism; 20th century poetry; French cinema; children’s literature; surrealism and the avant-garde; the Francophone novel; French literature and art between the wars. Prerequisites: one French 300 level course, or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

427
FRENCH LITERATURE OF THE 20TH CENTURY
This course explores the major movements of the 20th century, beginning with the poetry of the Surrealists, continuing with the Theatre of the Absurd, and culminating in the New Novel.  Representative writers include Proust, Breton, Céline, Camus, Duras, Saurraute and Le Clézio. Prerequisite: At least one French course from the 300 level. Alternate years.

470-479
INTERNSHIP (See index)

N80-N89
INDEPENDENT STUDY (See index)
Examples of recent studies in French include translation, Existentialism, the classical period, enlightenment literature, and Saint-Exupery.

490-491
INDEPENDENT STUDY FOR DEPARTMENTAL HONORS (See index)

GERMAN (GERM)

Major

A major consists of a minimum of 36 semester hours of GERM courses numbered 111 and above or approved courses from a Study Abroad program. GERM 426 or 441 is required of all majors. German majors must pass at least two semesters of MLS 449 and complete two of the additional requirements as explained under Capstone Experience. Students who wish to be certified for secondary teaching must complete the major with at least a 3.00 GPA and pass GERM 221-222, 311, 418, and either 426 or 441. In addition to the 36 semester hours of courses for the major, they must also pass MLS 338 and GERM 418 with a grade of B or better. All majors are urged to enroll in MUS 336 and THEA 335. The following courses satisfy the cultural diversity requirement: GERM 221 and 222. The following courses, when scheduled as a W course, counts toward the writing intensive requirement: GERM 426.

Minor

A minor in German consists of at least 20 semester hours of courses numbered 221 and above.  Eight of the credits must be numbered 300 or above. 

101
ELEMENTARY GERMAN I
Students acquire novice-level German proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of German cultural products encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated.

102
ELEMENTARY GERMAN II
Students continue to acquire novice-level German proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of German cultural products encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated. Prerequisite: GERM 101 or equivalent.

111
INTERMEDIATE GERMAN I
Intensive review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope and the study of German films is incorporated in the curriculum. Prerequisite: GERM 102 or equivalent.

112
INTERMEDIATE GERMAN II
Continued review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope and the study of German films is incorporated in the curriculum. In addition a task-based component is featured in this course. Prerequisite: GERM 111 or equivalent.

221
GERMAN CONVERSATION AND REVIEW
Refinement and improvement in the development of interpersonal, interpretive and presentational modes of communication with a view to increasing proficiency toward the advanced level. Conversations and writing focus on contemporary films, cultural readings, and literary texts. Phonetics, pronunciation and in-depth grammar review. Prerequisite: GERM 112 or equivalent.

222
GERMAN COMPOSITION AND REVIEW
Intensive reading and writing program based largely on current topics in the German-speaking countries, and on literature, film, music, art, and other cultural products. Literary texts include two novels. Strong emphasis placed on reading comprehension and the further development of writing skills toward the advanced level. Prerequisite: GERM 221.

311
MODERN GERMANY
This course is designed to familiarize students with social and political structures and cultural attitudes in contemporary German, Austrian, and Swiss society. Material studied may include newspaper articles, interviews, films, and readings in history, religion, anthropology, and the arts. Some attention is paid to the changing education system, to the family and to events and ideas that have shaped German-speaking cultures. Prerequisite: GERM 221 or consent of instructor.

315
INTRODUCTION TO GERMAN-LANGUAGE LITERATURE
Diverse readings in this course draw from German, Swiss, and Austrian literature and represent significant literary movements from the Middle Ages to the present. The course is designed to acquaint the student with literary concepts and terms, genre study and the basic skills of literary analysis. Prerequisite: GERM 222 or consent of instructor.       

321
SPECIAL TOPICS IN GERMAN LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Examination of significant cultural or literary topics concerning the German-speaking world. Possible topics include: the German Novelle; German theatre; the fairy tale; German poetry; German film; German art and culture. Prerequisite: GERM 222 or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

411
THE NOVELLE
The German Novelle as a genre relating to various literary periods. Prerequisite: One German 300 level course, or consent of instructor.

418
ADVANCED LANGUAGE PRACTICE
Intensive practice for advanced students who want to improve their spoken and written German. Includes work in oral comprehension, phonetics, pronunciation, oral and written composition, translation, and the development of the language and its relationship to English. Prerequisite: GERM 222 or consent of instructor.

426
SPECIAL TOPICS IN GERMAN LITERATURE AND CULTURE
The study of important works and movements in German literature and culture. Reading selections may focus on a particular genre or they may be a combination of drama, poetry and prose. Cultural topics may be explored with an interdisciplinary approach. Possible topics include: Medieval literature, Romanticism, Classicism, fairy tales, Goethe, East and West Germany, the Weimar Republic, the Uncanny, post-reunification literature and film. Prerequisite: One German 300 level course, or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

441
CONTEMPORARY GERMAN LITERATURE
Representative poets, novelists and dramatists of contemporary Germany, Switzerland and Austria covering the period from the 1960's to the present. Readings selected from writers such as: Böll, Brecht, Frisch, Dürrenmatt, Bichsel, Handke, Walser, Grass, Becker, and others. Prerequisite: One German 300 level course, or consent of instructor.

470-479
INTERNSHIP (See index) 

N80-N89
INDEPENDENT STUDY (See index)
Examples of recent studies in German include Classicism, Germanic Mythology, Hermann Hesse, the dramas of Frisch and Dürrenmatt.

490-491
INDEPENDENT STUDY FOR DEPARTMENTAL HONORS (See index)

GREEK (GRK) SEE RELIGION
HEBREW (HEBR) SEE RELIGION
LATIN (LAT) SEE RELIGION

SPANISH (SPAN)

Major

A major consists of 36 semester hours of SPAN courses numbered 111 and above or approved courses from a Study Abroad program. From courses numbered 315 or higher, one course must focus on literature or culture from Spain and one course must focus on literature or culture from Latin America. SPAN 315 and approved topics courses may focus on Hispanic literatures with representative readings from both Spain and Latin America. When this is the case, the course may count toward either the Spanish or Latin American requirement. Eight semester hours must be at the 400 level, not including 449. Spanish majors must pass at least two semesters of MLS 449 and complete two of the additional requirements as explained under the Capstone Experience section. Recommended course: HIST 120. Students who wish to be certified for secondary teaching must complete the major with at least a 3.00 GPA and pass SPAN 221, 222, 311, 418 and MLS 338 (the latter two with a grade of B or better).

The following courses satisfy the cultural diversity requirement: SPAN 221, 222, and 311.

The following courses, when scheduled as W courses, count toward the writing intensive requirement: SPAN 315, 323, 418, 424, and 426. 

Minor

A minor in Spanish consists of at least 20 semester hours of courses numbered 221 and above.  Eight of the credits must be numbered 300 or above. 

Courses 111 and 112 may be counted towards the minor, but then the minor must consist of at least 24 semester hours of courses, 8 hours of which must be numbered 300 or above.

101
ELEMENTARY SPANISH I
Students acquire novice-level Spanish proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of Spanish and Latin American cultural products encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated.

102
ELEMENTARY SPANISH II
Students continue to acquire novice-level Spanish proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of Spanish and Latin American cultural products encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated. Prerequisite: SPAN 101 or equivalent.

111
INTERMEDIATE SPANISH I
Intensive review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope and the study of Spanish and Latin American films is incorporated in the curriculum. Prerequisite: SPAN 102 or equivalent.

112
INTERMEDIATE SPANISH II
Continued review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope and the study of Spanish and Latin American films is incorporated in the curriculum. In addition a task-based component is featured in this course. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or equivalent.

221
SPANISH CONVERSATION AND REVIEW
Refinement and improvement in the development of interpersonal, interpretive and presentational modes of communication with a view to increasing proficiency toward the advanced level. Conversations and writing focus on contemporary cultural readings, literary texts, and film. Phonetics, pronunciation and in-depth grammar review. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or equivalent.

222
SPANISH COMPOSITION AND REVIEW
Intensive reading and writing program based largely on current topics in Spanish-speaking countries, and on literature, film, music, art, and other cultural products. Literary texts include poetry, short fiction, and a novel. Strong emphasis placed on reading comprehension and the further development of writing skills toward the advanced level. Prerequisite: SPAN 221.

311
HISPANIC CULTURE
To introduce students to Spanish-speaking peoples—their values, customs and institutions, with reference to the geographic and historical forces governing present-day Spain and Spanish America. Prerequisite: SPAN 222 or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

315
INTRODUCTION TO HISPANIC LITERATURES
Diverse readings in this course include both Spanish and Latin American literatures designed to acquaint the student with significant Hispanic authors and literary movements. The course deals with genre study, literary terms in Spanish, literary concepts and forms, as well as the basic skills of literary analysis. The course counts toward the requirement in the major as either a course in the literature of Spain or in the literature of Latin America. Prerequisite: SPAN 222 or consent of instructor.

321
SPECIAL TOPICS IN HISPANIC LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Examination of significant cultural or literary topics concerning the Spanish-speaking world. Possible topics include: Latin American short stories; Spanish theatre; Latin American women writers; Hispanic film; Hispanic art.  Prerequisite: SPAN 222 or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

323
SURVEY OF SPANISH LITERATURE AND CIVILIZATION
Designed to acquaint the student with important periods of Spanish literature, representative authors, and major socioeconomic developments. The course deals with the literature from the Middle Ages to the present. Prerequisite: SPAN 222 or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

325
SURVEY OF SPANISH-AMERICAN LITERATURE AND CIVILIZATION
Designed to acquaint the student with important periods of Spanish-American literature, representative authors, and major socio-economic developments. The course deals with the literature, especially the essay and poetry, from the 16th century to the present. Prerequisite: SPAN 222 or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

335
TRANSLATION
Examination of technical issues related to Spanish and English lexical, syntactical, and semantic differences as well as the various cultural issues involved in the act of translation. Students are asked to translate a variety of literary and non-literary texts and to reflect upon and discuss both the theory and practice of translation. Special emphasis is given to increasing Spanish vocabulary and perfecting Spanish grammar. Prerequisite: SPAN 222 or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

418
ADVANCED LANGUAGE PRACTICE
Intensive practice for advanced students who wish to improve their spoken and written Spanish. Includes work in oral comprehension, pronunciation, oral and written composition, and translation. Prerequisite:  Either two Spanish 300 level courses or one Spanish 400 level course; or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

426
SPECIAL TOPICS IN HISPANIC LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Readings of important works in Spanish and/or Latin American literature. Reading selections may focus on a particular genre or they may be a combination of drama, poetry and prose. Cultural topics may be explored with an interdisciplinary approach. Possible topics include: Medieval literature; the Golden Age; Romanticism and realism in Spain and Latin America; the Modernist movement in Latin America; 20th century poetry; Lorca and the avant-garde; the Latin American novel or short story; the literature of the Civil War and Franco Spain; the theme of honor in Spanish literature; dramatic revisions of Spanish history in modern Spanish theatre. Prerequisites: Two Spanish courses at the 300 or 400 level, or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

470-479
INTERNSHIP (See index) 

N80-N89
INDEPENDENT STUDY (See index)
Recent studies include literary, linguistic, and cultural topics and themes such as urban problems as reflected in the modern novel.

490-491
INDEPENDENT STUDY FOR DEPARTMENTAL HONORS (See index)